Female Urinary Health

At Aare Urocare, we provide discreet environment and specialised treatments tailored to your bladder, kidney and prostate conditions. We offer a range of treatments —  from minimally invasive methods to surgical intervention.

Urinary health for females differs vastly from men, with events such as pregnancy and childbirth or a higher number of pregnancies being risk factors for urinary incontinence. Menopausal women are also at risk due to a drop in oestrogen (hormone) levels.

Additionally, because of structural differences in our anatomy, women are more prone to other urinary issues, such as urinary tract infections, than men. Thankfully, many of these conditions are highly treatable with behavioural therapies, nerve stimulation and surgery.

At Aare Urocare, we provide discreet environment and specialised treatments tailored to your bladder, kidney and prostate conditions. We offer a range of treatments —  from minimally invasive methods to surgical intervention.

Urinary Incontinence

Urinary incontinence refers to the involuntary leakage of urine from the bladder and is an increasing problem in an ageing population like Singapore. Urinary incontinence can be caused by anything from hormonal deficiencies, weak pelvic floor muscles, urinary tract infections or problems with the nerves in the bladder. Types of urinary incontinence include:

1. Stress Urinary Incontinence

This is the most common type of incontinence and involves the leakage of urine when increased pressure is put on the bladder, such as when laughing, coughing, sneezing or during exercise. This is usually caused by the inability of the urinary sphincter to hold urine under pressure.

2. Urge Incontinence

Urge incontinence, also known as overactive bladder (OAB), is a type of incontinence where one feels a sudden or strong urge to urinate, often leading to uncontrolled early urination. This is caused by the bladder muscle contracting too early.

3. Mixed Incontinence

As the name suggests, if your symptoms sound like a mix of both stress urinary incontinence and urge incontinence, you may be diagnosed with mixed incontinence.

4. Overflow Incontinence

Overflow incontinence refers to the inability to empty the bladder fully, despite having the urge to urinate. This leads to “overflowing” and leaking.

Some women may also experience temporary urinary incontinence when they are pregnant or shortly after childbirth due to weakened pelvic floor muscles. These women are at a higher risk of incontinence in their later years as well.

Treatment for urinary incontinence largely depends on the type of incontinence you have and what is causing it. This requires a comprehensive diagnosis of your condition. There are a variety of treatment options, from lifestyle changes (i.e. pelvic floor exercises) to minimally invasive procedures such as neuromodulation for OAB to surgical intervention for severe incontinence.

Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause (GSM)

Also known as vaginal atrophy, genitourinary syndrome refers to symptoms caused by reduced oestrogen levels as a result of menopause in women. This leads to issues with the female genital area, pelvic floor tissues, bladder and urethra. Some symptoms include:

  • Vaginal dryness or burning sensations
  • Unusual vaginal discharge
  • Urgent or frequent urination
  • Spotting after sexual intercourse
  • Vaginal dryness during sexual intercourse
  • Shortening or tightening of the vaginal canal
  • Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs)
  • Genital itching

Treatment provided is generally tailored to the postmenopausal symptoms one experiences. For example, topical oestrogen can be prescribed for vaginal dryness to help balance the vaginal ecosystem, reducing the risk of recurring UTIs.

There are also minimally invasive treatments, such as the FOTONA Laser for stress urinary incontinence (mild to moderate), which utilises thermal energy to remodel tissue in the vaginal wall. This helps thicken and tighten the vaginal tissues, providing greater support to the bladder and urethra. This, in turn, returns normal continence function.

Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

A urinary tract infection (UTI) refers to infections involving any part of the urinary system, namely the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. This leads to issues such as a burning sensation during urination, abnormal discharge, abdominal pain, difficulty urinating or frequent urination. Symptoms of a UTI include:

  • A burning sensation during urination
  • Blood in the urine
  • Cloudy urine
  • Abnormal discharge
  • Incomplete voiding of the bladder
  • Frequent, painful urination
  • Incontinence
  • Pelvic or abdominal pain

In addition, acute pyelonephritis is known to result in high fever, pain in the back or flank, chills, as well as nausea or vomiting.

The first line of treatment involves the use of oral antibiotics. For recurrent UTIs or multi-drug resistant UTIs, intravenous antibiotic treatment may be administered, which will involve a short hospital stay.

It is important to note that a UTI may be a symptom of an obstruction in the bladders and kidneys, in which case a procedure to remove these obstructions may be needed.


Although women are at risk of various urinary problems because of occurrences such as pregnancy and menopause, physiological differences and hormonal changes, many of these conditions are manageable with the right treatments.

If you suffer from urinary conditions such as frequent or difficulty urinating, blood in your urine or severe abdominal pain, please consult a urologist for proper diagnosis and a personalised treatment plan.

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Dr. Fiona Wu 2

Dr Fiona Wu
Consultant Urologist

MBBS (S'pore), MRCS (Edin), MMED (Surg),
MMED (Clinical Investigation),
FRCS (Urol) (RCPSG), FAMS (Urology)

Dr Fiona Wu is an experienced Consultant Urologist and is the Medical Director of Aare Urocare.

Prior to her private practice, she spent 15 years in public service. She was a Consultant in the Department of Urology at National University Hospital (NUH), Alexandra Hospital and Ng Teng Fong General Hospital.

She believes in treating urinary incontinence in a holistic way using minimally invasive methods – this ranges from laser treatment, neurotoxin injections, electromagnetic nerve stimulation to minimally invasive surgeries, etc. She worked closely with the gynaecology and colorectal departments to treat complex pelvic floor conditions and continues to do so in her own practice.

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How can we help you?

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Aare Urocare offers discreet services and specialised treatments tailored to your bladder, kidney and prostate conditions. The clinic believes in treating urinary conditions in a holistic way, providing a range of treatments — from minimally invasive methods to surgical intervention.

No Urinary Concern is Too Small

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