Testicular lump

Testicular Lump and Pain

What is Testicular Lump and Pain?

A testicular lump is an abnormal mass or swelling that can be felt or observed in one or both testicles, the male reproductive organs responsible for producing sperm and hormones. Testicular lumps vary in size, shape, and texture and may or may not be associated with pain or discomfort. These lumps can have various causes, some benign (non-cancerous), while others may indicate a more severe condition, including testicular cancer.

Testicular cancer
Testicular lumps may be caused by testicular cancer.

What are the common causes of Testicular Lump and Pain for men in Singapore?

Here are some common causes of testicular lumps:

  • Cysts: cysts are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in the testicles. They are often benign and generally do not cause pain.
  • Epididymal cysts: these are cysts in the epididymis, a small tube behind the testicle that stores and carries sperm. They are typically harmless and may or may not cause discomfort.
  • Spermatocele: a spermatocele, also called a spermatic cyst, is a painless fluid-filled sac located above the testicle in the scrotum. It is typically non-cancerous.
  • Varicoceles: varicoceles are enlarged veins in the scrotum, similar to varicose veins in the legs. They can sometimes be felt as a lump and may cause discomfort.
  • Orchitis: orchitis is an inflammation of the testicle itself. It can cause testicular pain, swelling, and redness. Infections, including mumps or other viral or bacterial agents, may cause it.
  • Testicular tumours: while less common, testicular lumps can be a symptom of testicular cancer. Testicular cancer often presents as a painless lump or swelling in the testicle. It is crucial to rule out this possibility through medical evaluation.
  • Infections: infections of the testicle or epididymis can lead to swelling and lumps. Epididymitis, for example, can result in a painful lump in the scrotum.
  • Injury or trauma: trauma to the testicles can cause swelling and the development of a lump.
  • Hydrocele: a hydrocele is a buildup of fluid around the testicle, which can cause swelling and a lump-like sensation. It is usually not painful.
  • Haematocele: a haematocele is characterised by the accumulation of blood between the sac’s layers surrounding the testicles, often resulting in testicular pain and swelling. It can occur due to trauma or injury to the testicles and typically requires medical attention.
  • Inguinal hernia: inguinal hernias occur when a portion of the intestine protrudes through the abdominal wall and can sometimes cause a lump in the scrotal area that may be mistaken for a testicular lump.
Hydrocele occurs when there is a build-up of fluid around a testicle.

What are the symptoms of a Testicular Lump?

The symptoms of a testicular lump vary depending on the underlying cause. Common symptoms associated with a testicular lump may include:

  • Palpable lump: the most noticeable symptom is the presence of a lump or swelling in one or both testicles. The lump may feel firm, smooth, or irregular in texture.
  • Pain or discomfort: testicular pain or discomfort may or may not accompany the lump. The pain can range from mild to severe and may be constant or intermittent.
  • Pressure or heaviness: some individuals may experience heaviness or pressure in the affected testicle or scrotum.
  • Changes in size or shape: the testicle with the lump may appear larger than the other one or have an altered shape.
  • Experiencing warmth or redness: sometimes, the scrotal skin over the lump may appear reddened or feel warmer to the touch.
  • Fluid buildup: depending on the cause, fluid accumulation may occur around the testicle, leading to swelling or enlargement.
  • Systemic symptoms: if the lump is associated with a more severe condition, such as testicular cancer, individuals may experience unexplained weight loss, fatigue, or enlarged lymph nodes.

If you are experiencing any of the symptoms stated above, make an appointment with Aare Urocare today for an accurate diagnosis and effective treatment.

Testicular lump
Testicular cancer is characterised by a lump in the testicle.

Is the Testicular Lump painful?

In many cases, testicular lumps may not be associated with pain and can go unnoticed until discovered during a self-examination or a routine medical checkup. Examples of such painless testicular lumps include spermatoceles and some types of cysts.

However, some testicular lumps can cause pain or discomfort. For instance, if the lump results from an infection, such as epididymitis, it can lead to testicular pain, swelling, and tenderness. 

Injuries or trauma to the testicles can also cause painful lumps, as can conditions like testicular torsion, a medical emergency characterised by severe and sudden testicular pain and swelling.

Testicular cancer is another condition that may present with a painless lump or swelling in the testicle. Although the lump may not be painful, some individuals may experience a dull ache or discomfort in the affected testicle or groin area as the cancer progresses.

Who is at risk of developing Testicular Lump and Pain in Singapore?

Testicular lumps can affect individuals of all ages and backgrounds. Still, certain factors may increase the risk of developing a testicular lump or experiencing conditions that can lead to testicular lumps. These risk factors include:

  • Age: testicular cancer is most commonly diagnosed in young and middle-aged men, typically between 15 and 40. However, testicular lumps can occur at any age.
  • Undescended testicle: men with an undescended testicle at birth, also known as cryptorchidism, have a higher risk of developing testicular cancer, which is characterised by testicular lumps.
  • Family history: individuals with a family history of testicular cancer may have an increased risk, particularly if a close family member (father or brother) has had the disease.
  • Personal history: a previous history of testicular cancer in one testicle slightly increases the risk of developing it in the other testicle.
  • Race and ethnicity: testicular cancer is more common in caucasian men than men of other racial and ethnic backgrounds.
Cryptorchidism is when one or both testicles fail to descend into the scrotum.

However, while these factors may be associated with an increased risk of testicular cancer, most testicular lumps are not cancerous. Benign conditions like epididymal cysts, spermatoceles, and varicoceles are more common causes of testicular lumps and may occur in individuals without specific risk factors.

How is a Testicular Lump diagnosed in Singapore?

Diagnosing a testicular lump involves a combination of medical history assessment, physical examination, and various diagnostic tests. Here’s an overview of the steps involved in diagnosing a testicular lump:

  • Medical history assessment: your urologist will start by taking a detailed medical history, which includes asking questions about your symptoms, how long you have had the lump, any pain or discomfort associated with it, and any other relevant medical conditions or family history.
  • Physical examination: a detailed physical exam of the scrotum and testicles will be conducted to assess the lump’s size, shape, texture, and location and check for any signs of tenderness, redness, or warmth in the scrotal area.
  • Transillumination: a small handheld light called a transilluminator may sometimes be used. Transillumination involves shining a light through the scrotal sac to distinguish between solid and fluid-filled masses. Fluid-filled masses, such as cysts, will transmit light and appear as a clear area.
  • Ultrasound: a scrotum ultrasound is a common diagnostic tool for evaluating testicular lumps. It provides detailed images of the testicles and surrounding structures to determine the nature of the lump. Ultrasound can differentiate between cysts, solid masses, and other abnormalities.
  • Blood tests: blood tests may be ordered to assess tumour markers, such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Elevated levels of these markers can indicate certain testicular conditions, including testicular cancer.
  • Additional imaging: if testicular cancer is suspected, additional imaging tests, such as a computed tomography scan (CT scan) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), may assess whether the cancer has spread to other body parts.


Early diagnosis and prompt medical evaluation are crucial for timely intervention and the best possible outcomes, especially in cases where testicular cancer is a concern.

What are the treatment options for Testicular Lump and Pain in Singapore?

Various conditions can cause testicular lumps; treatment options depend on the underlying cause. Here are some potential treatment options for testicular lump and pain:

  • Observation: in some cases, a small, painless lump in the testicle may be benign (non-cancerous) and not require immediate treatment. Your urologist may recommend regular monitoring and follow-up exams to ensure the lump does not change in size or characteristics.
  • Medication: if the lump is due to an infection or inflammation, antibiotics or anti-inflammatory medications may be used to treat the underlying condition.
  • Surgery: surgical intervention may be necessary in some cases. For example, orchiectomy, the surgical removal of the affected testicle, may be performed if the lump is confirmed to be cancerous (testicular cancer) or if there are concerns that it might be cancerous.
  • Hydrocele repair: if the lump is due to a hydrocele (a fluid-filled sac around the testicle), surgical drainage or hydrocele removal may be performed. 
  • Radiation therapy: in cases of testicular cancer that has spread to nearby lymph nodes, radiation therapy may be recommended as part of the treatment plan.
  • Chemotherapy: chemotherapy may be recommended for more advanced cases of testicular cancer or when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
  • Follow-up care: after treatment, regular follow-up appointments are essential to monitor your recovery, check for recurrence, and manage any potential side effects of treatment.

Early detection and prompt medical attention can significantly improve the chances of successful treatment. 

Schedule an appointment with Aare Urocare, where we cater to our patients’ needs with accurate diagnosis and personalised treatment.

Frequently asked questions

Some testicular lumps, such as those caused by infections or inflammation, may resolve independently. However, you must consult a specialist to evaluate any persistent or concerning testicular lump to rule out severe conditions like testicular cancer.

Feeling a lump in the testicle is not uncommon, but it should always be taken seriously. A urologist should examine any unusual or persistent testicular lump to rule out potential health concerns, including testicular cancer. 

No, not all testicular lumps are cancerous. Testicular lumps can have various causes, including infections, cysts, or benign tumours. 

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Dr. Fiona Wu 2

Dr Fiona Wu
Consultant Urologist

MBBS (S'pore), MRCS (Edin), MMED (Surg),
MMED (Clinical Investigation),
FRCS (Urol) (RCPSG), FAMS (Urology)

Dr Fiona Wu is an experienced Consultant Urologist and is the Medical Director of Aare Urocare.

Prior to her private practice, she spent 15 years in public service. She was a Consultant in the Department of Urology at National University Hospital (NUH), Alexandra Hospital and Ng Teng Fong General Hospital.

She believes in treating urinary incontinence in a holistic way using minimally invasive methods – this ranges from laser treatment, neurotoxin injections, electromagnetic nerve stimulation to minimally invasive surgeries, etc. She worked closely with the gynaecology and colorectal departments to treat complex pelvic floor conditions and continues to do so in her own practice.

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